Discuss kinds of hernias. A hernia happens when the insides of a cavity protrude out from the place where they’re usually contained. The contents, normally portions of tissue from abdominal fat or intestine, are contained within the flimsy membrane that lines the cavity on the inside. Hernias can be asymptomatic or may cause some pain of varying degrees. Strangulated hernias are those where the blood supply has been cut off. This happens when the insides of the hernia protrude through an opening in the wall of the abdomen. This causes pressure leading to constriction of the blood vessels which leads to the supply of blood being cut-off completely.
Different kinds of hernias include inguinal (groin) hernias, indirect inguinal hernias, direct inguinal hernias, femoral hernias, umbilical hernias, incisional hernias, spigelian hernias, obturator hernias and epigastric hernias. These kinds of hernias account for up to seventy-five per cent of hernias affecting the abdominal-wall. Occurring almost twenty-five times more frequently in men than they do in than women, they are split into two separate kinds of hernias; indirect and direct. Both of these types happen in the inguinal crease area of the groin. They have different origins however; both kinds of hernias may resemble a bulge near the inguinal crease area. To distinguish between the two different kinds of hernias is important however, when making the clinical diagnosis.
Inguinal hernias which are termed indirect can occur at any age. These kinds of hernias follow the same pathway as the testicles do during fetal development; as they descend from the area where the abdomen is into the area where the scrotum is. This pathway usually closes up before birth, although it is possible it may become a site where a hernia may occur later in life for some people. The sac containing the hernia may occasionally bulge out into the area of the scrotum.
Direct inguinal hernias occur just on the inside of the place where the indirect hernias occur; here the wall of the abdomen is slightly thinner. These kinds of hernias will rarely protrude out into where the scrotum is. Direct hernias tend to occur more among the elderly and middle-aged because these people’s abdominal walls have become weaker with age; unlike indirect hernias which can occur at any age.
A femoral hernia causes a lump to protrude just below the inguinal crease, near the mid-thigh. The path along which the nerve, vein and femoral run is known as the Femoral Canal, which runs from the area of the abdomen’s cavity down to the thigh. This is usually a very narrow space, but it can become wide enough to enable abdominal contents (intestine for example) to protrude out into the femoral canal. These kinds of hernias are more commonly found in women and are specifically in danger of becoming strangulated and irreducible; although not all irreducible hernias are strangulated.
Umbilical hernias are common at birth and resemble a lump protruding from the bellybutton site (the umbilicus). These kinds of hernias occur when a gap in the wall of the abdomen, which usually closes up before birth, does not completely close. If the hernia is less than one half of an inch, it normally closes up gradually by the age of two. Kinds of hernias which are larger than this and those hernias that don’t close in this manner generally require surgery by the age of two to four years old.
Incisional hernia can occur after abdominal surgery. Surgery in this area causes a defect in the wall of the abdomen. This defect can create a weak area where hernias may occur.
Epigastric hernias occur between the lower area where the rib-cage is situated and the belly-button. These kinds of hernias are generally made of fatty tissues; rarely containing intestine. When first found, it is often not possible to push these kinds of hernias back inside the abdomen. Despite this, they are usually painless.