There are different kinds of anemia. They can be classified using a morphological approach according to the sizes of red blood cells. It is a mycrocytic anemia if the size of the blood is very small (below 80fl). A medium sized blood (between 80 and 100 fl) is usually called a normocysic, while a larger size (usually above 100fl) is known as macrocytic. This classification reveals the common causes of anemia; for example, the microcytic anemia is basically caused by iron deficiency.
We equally have the kinetic classification of anemia, which is the most clinically important categorization. This classification is dependent on the examination of different hematological levels, especially the blood reticulocite count. These signs include signs of bleeding (like frank bleeding, radiographic findings, or guaiac-positive stool) and signs of destruction or loss (like hemolysis or RBC destruction)
Microcytic anemia: These kinds of anemia is mainly as a result of failure of hemoglobin synthesis, which can result from a lot of factors such as the defect of globin synthesis, inadequate heme synthesis, BbC syndrome, and HbE syndrome, to mention but a few.
Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common of all kinds of anemia. They are caused by so many factors. Normally, lack of or disproportionate iron intake in the body is the major cause of this type of anemia. Pregnant women, infants, and toddlers need this nutrient more than other people.
High intake of iron is equally required to counteract blood issues as a result of heavy menstrual periods, frequent blood donations, or digestive tract issues. Iron is the main constituent of hemoglobin, and low levels of this nutrient can lead to insufficient supply of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. This deficiency is what results to anemia. Also, blood loss or bleeding, primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, can result to anemia. To identify these lesions, a lower endoscopy, upper endoscopy, and
fecal blood testing should be carried out on the individual.
These kinds of anemia are normally caused as a result of deficiency of either folic acid, Vitamin B12, or both. While B12 deficiency produces neurological symptoms, deficiency of folate does not. These kinds of anemia can equally be caused by the removal some functional stomach parts as a result of gastric bypass surgery. There are two kinds of macrocytic anemia: non-megaloblastic and megaloblastic macrocytic anemia. Non-megaloblastic anemia have different causes but the major cause is unequalled synthesis of the DNA , which is a result of over indulgence in alcohol intake. The primary etiology of megaloblastic anemia is the general failure of RNA synthesis with the DNA synthesis.
These kinds of anemia occur when there is a general decrease in the level of hemoglobin while the the red blood cells retain their normal size.
Situations that give rise to this issue include bone marrow failure, hemolytic anemia, or acute blood loss.
Dimorphic anemia: These kinds of anemia usually occur when there are two red blood cell populations occur simultaneously alongside hemoglobin in the blood stream. This is often as a result of blood transfusion.